The urogenital system includes the urinary and reproductive organs.
The urinary system is divided into two regions based on anatomy and function: upper (kidneys and ureters) and lower urinary (urinary bladder and urethra) tracts. The kidneys filter metabolic wastes from the blood to be excreted into the urine. The kidneys also participate in blood pressure regulation and maintenance of the delicate electrolyte and water balance within the body-keeping only what is needed. The ureters bridge the upper urinary tract to the lower urinary tract. The lower urinary tract serves as a reservoir for urine (bladder) and a pathway for excretion (urethra). Indications of a urinary tract problem can be varied: excessive urination and drinking, straining to urinate, blood in the urine, odor to urine, diarrhea, inappetance, incontinence, colic, and lethargy.
The genital system consists of the reproductive organs- uterus and ovaries. These organs produce hormones and allow reproduction. Signs associated with genital tract problems in mares include: abortions, discharge, odor, straining to urinate, colic, and lethargy. Genital tract abnormalities in stallions may manifest as: discharge, odor, straining to urinate, scrotal/penile swellings, and lethargy.
Common urogenital ailments affecting horses:
o Abortion: Equine Herpesvirus, Equine Arteritis Virus, Leptospirosis, Equine Infectious Anemia, Bacteria, Mycotic, Protozoal
o Ovarian cysts
o Perineal and Rectovaginal Lacerations
§ Placentitis: bacterial and fungal
§ Retained placenta (fetal membranes)
§ Early embryonic death
§ Infectious: Endometritis, Metritis, Pyometra
§ Inflammatory: Prolapse, Rupture, Torsion
o Venereal disease: bacterial, viral, Contagious Equine Metritis
Foals : Ruptured urinary bladder; Patent urachus; Cryptorchidism
Kidney failure : acute and chronic. Acute kidney failure can be caused by infections, kidney stones, toxins, and drugs to name a few. Aging pets may develop chronic kidney failure. Often, by the time chronic kidney failure is diagnosed, the cause cannot be determined.